- Both 12-hour and 24-hour times could be used
- In the 12-hour clock system
- AM is between midnight (12am) and midday (12pm)
- PM is between midday (12pm) and midnight (12am)

- Times may have to be read from both analogue and digital clocks

- Times may have to be read from timetables

- Time does not work like the rest of the number system (based on 10s, 100s, etc) so calculations can get awkward
- 60 seconds in a minute
- 60 minutes in an hour
- 24 hours in a day
- 7 days in a week
- 365 days in a year
- … and many more !

- You should know the number of days in each calendar month, the following poem may help you remember…

- A 12-hour clock goes round once for am and once for pm
- am is midnight (12am) to midday (12pm)
- pm is midday (12pm) to midnight (12am)

- A 24-hour clock uses four digits – two for the hour, two for the minutes
- 1134 is 11.34am
- The day starts at midnight which is 0000
- 1pm is 1300, 2pm is 1400, …, 10pm is 2200, 11pm is 2300

- Analogue clocks work in 12-hour time
- On the minute hand each number is worth five minutes
- Some clocks will have markings for individual minutes

- The hour hand is always moving
- At “half past” the hour hand should be halfway between two numbers (and the minute hand will be pointing at the number 6)

- Digital clocks can use either 24 hour time or 12-hour time
- A “:” is often displayed between the hours and minutes
- e.g. 1245 would be displayed as 12:45

- am or pm does not need to be specified with 24-hour time
- it may or may not be shown on a 12-hour time

- For single-digit hours, clocks often miss out the first zero
- e.g. 09:23 would be displayed as 9:23

- A “:” is often displayed between the hours and minutes
- Timetables (for a bus or train for example) use the 24-hour time
- Times are listed as four digits without the “:”

- Work in chunks of time
- e.g. calculate the minutes until the next hour, then whole hours, then minutes until a final time

- Ensure you know when the 12-hour clock switches from am to pm and vice versa
- Remember midday is 12pm and midnight is 12am

- Work in chunks of time just like the 12 hour clock calculations
- e.g. Calculate the minutes until the next hour, then whole hours, then minutes until a final time

- If the hour is greater than 12, subtract 12 from it to find the 12-hour
**pm**hour

- These tend to use the 24-hour clock system
- Each column represents a different bus/train – these are often called “services”
- e.g. “The 0810 service from London King’s Cross”

- The time in each cell usually indicate departure times (when the bus/train leaves that stop/station)
- The last location on the list usually shows the arrival time

- Even if allowed, put that calculator away for time-based questions!
- There is a button/mode on most makes/models of calculator that can help but it takes some getting used to
- It is usually as quick and as accurate to use non-calculator skills

- Mathematical Operations
- Negative Numbers
- Money Calculations
- Number Operations
- Related Calculations
- Counting Principles

- Types of Number
- Prime Factor Decomposition
- HCF & LCM

- Powers, Roots & Indices
- Standard Form

- Basic Fractions
- Operations with Fractions

- Basic Percentages
- Working with Percentages

- Interest & Depreciation
- Exponential Growth & Decay

- Converting between FDP
- Converting between FDP

- Rounding & Estimation
- Bounds

- Simplifying Surds
- Rationalising Denominators

- Using a Calculator

- Algebraic Notation & Vocabulary
- Algebra Basics

- Algebraic Roots & Indices

- Expanding Single Brackets
- Expanding Multiple Brackets

- Factorising
- Factorising Quadratics
- Quadratics Factorising Methods

- Completing the Square

- Rearranging Formulae

- Algebraic Proof

- Solving Linear Equations

- Solving Quadratic Equations
- Quadratic Equation Methods

- Simultaneous Equations

- Iteration

- Forming Equations
- Equations & Problem Solving

- Functions Toolkit
- Composite & Inverse Functions

- Coordinates
- Coordinate Geometry

- Straight Line Graphs (y = mx + c)
- Parallel & Perpendicular Lines

- Types of Graphs
- Graphical Solutions
- Trig Graphs

- Equation of a Circle
- Equation of a Tangents

- Finding Gradients of Tangents
- Finding Areas under Graphs

- Distance-Time & Speed-Time Graphs
- Conversion Graphs
- Rates of Change of Graphs

- Solving Linear Inequalities
- Conversion Graphs
- Solving Quadratic Inequalities

- Graphing Inequalities

- Reflections of Graphs

- Introduction to Sequences
- Types of Sequences
- Linear Sequences
- Quadratic Sequences

- Simple Ratio
- Working with Proportion

- Ratios & FDP
- Multiple Ratios

- Direct & Inverse Proportion

- Time
- Unit Conversions
- Compound Measures

- Exchange Rates & Best Buys

- Symmetry
- 2D & 3D Shapes
- Plans & Elevations

- Basic Angle Properties
- Angles in Polygons
- Angles in Parallel Lines

- Bearings
- Scale & Maps
- Constructing Triangles
- Constructions & Loci

- Angles at Centre & Semicircles
- Chords & Tangents
- Cyclic Quadrilaterals
- Segment Theorems
- Circle Theorem Proofs

- Area & Perimeter
- Problem Solving with Areas

- Area & Circumference of Circles
- Arcs & Sectors

- Volume
- Surface Area

- Congruence
- Similarity
- Geometrical Proof

- Similar Area & Volumes

- Pythagoras Theorem
- Right-Angled Trigonometry
- Exact Trig Values

- Sine & Cosine Rules
- Area of a Triangle
- Applications of Trigonomet

- 3D Pythagoras & Trigonometry

- Introduction to Vectors
- Working with Vectors

- Translations
- Reflections
- Rotations
- Enlargements
- Combination of Transformations

- Basic Probability
- Relative & Expected Frequency

- Two Way Tables
- Frequency Trees
- Set Notation & Venn Diagrams

- Tree Diagrams

- Combined Probability
- Conditional Probability
- Combined Conditional Probabilities

- Mean, Median & Mode
- Averages from Tables
- Range & Quartiles
- Comparing Distributions
- Population & Sampling

- Bar Charts & Pictograms
- Pie Charts
- Time Series Graphs
- Working with Statistical Diagrams

- Histograms

- Cumulative Frequency Diagrams
- Box Plots

- Scatter Graphs

Menu